(PhysOrg.com) — “The concept of matter waves is at the heart of quantum mechanics,” Oliver Morsch tells PhysOrg.com. “At the beginning of the last century, scientists discovered that solid particles could exhibit properties of waves, such as interference and diffraction. Until then, it was assumed that only light behaved as a wave. But in the quantum world everything is basically a wave.” Citation: Exerting better control over matter waves (2009, March 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-03-exerting.html Distinguishing decoherence in quantum systems Morsch is part of a group of scientists, including Alessandro Zenesini, Hans Lignier, Donatella Ciampini and Ennio Arimondo, at the University of Pisa in Italy. The group has discovered a way to more efficiently control matter waves in a setup that simulates a solid state system. “Once you have control over a quantum system,” Morsch explains, “you can learn any number of things, especially from a fundamental point of view. Additionally, it is worth noting that almost all of our modern technology is related in some way to quantum mechanical principles.” The group’s technique is described in Physical Review Letters: “Coherent Control of Dressed Matter Waves.”In order to control the matter waves, Morsch and his colleagues created an optical lattice. “We, in effect, create a light crystal,” Morsch says. “It’s not a true solid, but it mimics the crystal lattice of a solid. It provides us with a sort of model system for solid state applications, allowing us to perform experiments without being bound by the naturally given physical properties of a solid.” Once the lattice is created, using lasers and mirrors, the Pisa University group shook the mirrors – and hence the optical lattice – to create a phenomenon known as dynamic localization.“It’s very counter-intuitive,” Morsch says of dynamic localization. “Before we shake the lattice, atoms move freely throughout by quantum tunneling. However, once we apply the shaking, they stop moving. For certain values, we can make sure that atoms stay put in one lattice site. We can also create a quantum phase transition so that the system changes its bulk properties when you change a parameter. In our experiment, we create a phase transition by shaking. That is our control over the matter waves.”Instead of being a top to bottom approach, the Pisa group is interested in starting at the bottom – with individual particles. “Rather than trying to tweak the bulk system,” Morsch explains, “we are trying to tweak the properties of the individual particles to meet our needs. We are controlling the matter wave to shape it to our needs, and then using that to control the larger system.”Morsch points out that, right now, this process is most interesting from a fundamental point of view. However, he believes that it is likely to develop into greater uses in the future. Morsch thinks that this method has potential applications in quantum control schemes, which could be important in the development of quantum computers and in directed chemical reactions. “If you look at the history of physics and quantum mechanics, you find that each time you develop another handle on the quantum world – somehow learn how to better control the properties of a quantum system – new inventions and technology come about. This method of control is so new that it is impossible to really predict what, if anything, might come out of it.”“For the most part,” Morsch continues, “this work represents yet another method that will give us more control over the quantum state of single particles. Over the last 15 or 20 years, it has become possible, and increasingly important, to exert control at the single-particle level. Our demonstration is in line with what existing theory shows, and could be another tool for the development of future quantum-based technologies.”More information: Alessandro Zenesini, Hans Lignier, Donatella Ciampini, Oliver Morsch, and Ennio Arimondo, “Coherent Control of Dressed Matter Waves.” Physical Review Letters (2009). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.100403 .Copyright 2009 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Pint-sized car engine promises high efficiency (PhysOrg.com) — The best hybrid cars of today can only deliver about 48 miles per gallon. By using this newly developed fuel injection system a test vehicle was measured at achieving 64 miles per gallon in highway driving. This is approximately a 50% increase in fuel efficiency in a gasoline engine. More information: Transonic Combustion: www.tscombustion.com/ Explore further The fuel injection system was developed by a startup company Transonic Combustion and their goal is to increase fuel efficiency of existing gasoline engines. The cost for this ultra-efficient system would be as much as high-end fuel injection systems currently on the market today.By heating and pressurizing gasoline before injecting it into the combustion chamber places it into a supercritical state that allows for very fast and clean combustion. This in turn decreases the amount of fuel needed to run the vehicle. The gasoline is also treated with a catalyst to further enhance combustion.What makes Transonic’s fuel injection system different from a direct injection is that it uses supercritical fluids and requires no spark to ignite the fuel. The supercritical fluid mixes quickly with air when it’s injected into the cylinder. The heat and pressure, in the cylinder, alone is enough to cause the fuel to combust without a spark.Ignition timing happens just when the piston reaches the optimal point, so that the maximum amount of energy is converted into mechanical movement of the engine.Proprietary software has also been developed by Transonic Combustion that allows the system to adjust the fuel injection precisely depending on engine load. Transonic Combustion is currently testing their new fuel injection system with three automakers. One key concern is the life of the engine when it’s subject to high pressures and temperatures. The company plans to manufacture the system themselves and not license the technology. Transonic Combustion plans to build its first factory in 2013, and place the technology into production cars by 2014. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Fuel-injection System That Delivers 64 Miles Per Gallon (2010, March 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-03-fuel-injection-miles-gallon.html The new fuel-injection system is placed into this sports car which weighs approximately the same as the Toyota Prius hybrid and has similar aerodynamics. The new fuel injection system gets better gas mileage than the Prius hybrid. Credit: Transonic Combustion This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2012 Phys.org Citation: Mozilla to freeze Thunderbird innovations (2012, July 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-mozilla-thunderbird.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In Mozilla’s favor, reader reactions among those who use Thunderbird have been largely expressed as disappointment but continued support for the Foundation’s efforts to follow paths of growth. They largely say they do not like but understand the decision. “As I lose more and more trust everyday in cloud computing and giving my information to companies for hosting on their servers, it was reassuring to have an e-mail system in place that gave me control over my e-mail,” said one comment to a site report. “Saddened to hear that Mozilla is making these changes, but understand it given today’s technological advances on the web.”Also in Mozilla’s favor, e-mail market facts speak for themselves. Thunderbird has 24 million users but Gmail has 425 million users.“Thunderbird provides an open-source, cross-platform email alternative for those of us who still use stand-alone email clients (and I am one). It’s trust-worthy, it’s under your control, and it’s built to reflect the Mozilla mission,” wrote Baker in her Friday blog. However, she said, “in parallel, we have seen the rising popularity of Web-based forms of communications representing email alternatives to a desktop solution. Given this, focusing on stability for Thunderbird and driving innovation through other offerings seems a natural choice.”The Foundation is inviting those in the wider development community to continue work on Thunderbird if there is enough interest. The Thunderbird team is to propose a new release and governance model that would allow for ongoing maintenance in security and stability.Final details of how this new “release and governance” model will work will be hammered out in the coming months. “We are going to open this plan for public discussion to individuals and organizations interested in maintaining and advancing Thunderbird in the future on Monday. We are looking for your feedback, comments and suggestions to refine and adapt the plan in the best possible way throughout the summer so we can share a final plan of action in early September 2012.” Thunderbird 1.0 vs. Outlook Express Explore further (Phys.org) — Friday’s blog and news site revelations of an internal Mozilla email leading off with “Hello Mozillians” said there is to be a Mozilla Foundation announcement on Monday. The announcement is big. Mozilla is freezing further development of its popular and well-received email client, Thunderbird, which has over 20 million users. “We’ve been focusing efforts towards important web and mobile projects,” read the message from Jb Piacentino, Thunderbird Managing Director. The message noted that while Thunderbird is purely a desktop-only email client “We have come to the conclusion that continued innovation on Thunderbird is not the best use of our resources given our ambitious organizational goals.” The announcement on Monday is to carry details of Thunderbird’s proposed new “governance model. “We’re not ‘stopping’ Thunderbird, but proposing we adapt the Thunderbird release and governance model in a way that allows both ongoing security and stability maintenance, as well as community-driven innovation and development for the product,“ said the heads-up message to its Mozillians.Similarly, in a Friday blog posting from the Mozilla Foundation Chair Mitchell Baker, the Thunderbird freeze was reiterated that “Continued innovation in Thunderbird is not a priority for Mozilla’s product efforts.”In some circles the news raised more questions than answers. A carefully spun message that Thunderbird was being killed off? Shot down except for maintenance and security fixes? A long goodbye? Time to hunt for another e-mail system? “Putting it in a hospice” was one site’s suggested take. Mozilla will be pulling some in-house developers off the Thunderbird project but intends to continue handling bug fixes and security updates “This will mean an eventual shift in how we staff Thunderbird at Mozilla Corporation – we are still working out details, but some people will likely end up on other Mozilla projects,” said the Piacentino message. “Today the Thunderbird team is back in the main Mozilla product organization,” said Baker in her Friday blog.The news may not have come as a big surprise, however, to Foundation insiders and those otherwise close to the situation. According to Geek.com, “We know that developers began moving off the Thunderbird team back in January. This has been coming for a while; we’re just learning about it now.”Still, to others, this was unexpected and puzzling, considering Thunderbird, first released in 2004, had just got a new version in June. Users complimented Mozilla for its “rapid update cycle” for Thunderbird and Version 13 was allowing users to sign up for new custom e-mail addresses without having to leave the app. The Version 13 announcement was accompanied by the information that “In partnership with Gandi and Hover, you can now sign up for a personalized email address from within Thunderbird. Along with your new email address, Thunderbird will be automatically set up and ready to send and receive messages. We are working with additional suppliers to cover more areas of the world and to provide more options in the future.”
Citation: Reaction adds chiral groups to nitrogen rings without first installing reactive groups (2018, April 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-reaction-chiral-groups-nitrogen-reactive.html More information: Rupert S. J. Proctor et al. Catalytic enantioselective Minisci-type addition to heteroarenes, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6376AbstractBasic heteroarenes are a ubiquitous feature of pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules, and Minisci-type additions of radical nucleophiles are a leading method for their elaboration. Despite many Minisci-type protocols that result in the formation of stereocenters, exerting control over the absolute stereochemistry at these centers remains an unmet challenge. We report a process for addition of prochiral radicals, generated from amino acid derivatives, to pyridines and quinolines with excellent control of both enantioselectivity and regioselectivity. An enantiopure chiral Brønsted acid catalyst serves both to activate the substrate and induce asymmetry, while an iridium photocatalyst mediates the required electron transfer processes. We anticipate that this method will expedite access to enantioenriched small-molecule building blocks bearing versatile basic heterocycles. Journal information: Science Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. As the researchers note, nitrogen rings with associated chiral groups (groups that are asymmetric in nature) are common in agricultural, pharmaceutical and bioactive products, and chemists would like to have methods of adding groups with certain kinds of chirality to nitrogen to a cyclic compound in which one of the rings is not a carbon atom. Prior efforts to do so have involved catalytic asymmetric reduction reactions, but they have suffered from the need to pre-install reactive groups and require many complicated steps. Others have tried using a Minisci-type reaction, but thus far, it has resulted in the addition of other groups to the rings. In this new effort, the researchers also employ a Minisci-type reaction, though in a different way—the result is a process that has fewer steps, does not require pre-installing reactive groups and allows for much tighter control over ring positioning.The reaction in the new method involves two catalysts that add certain radicals to a nitrogen heterocyclic compound derived from an arene (a heteroarene)—the result is a chiral core on a carbon atom that is itself attached to a ring. To get the reaction going, the researchers aimed a beam of light from a blue LED at the mixture causing an acid in the chiral catalyst to activate the heterocycle.The researchers suggest the reaction technique could prove especially useful for developing medicines because it would be very easy to scale for manufacturing purposes. They note that their work very likely has commercial applications, but have at this time chosen not to pursue such options. Instead, they hope their work will be adopted and used by other researchers working on other pressing chemistry problems, particularly those involved in developing medications. Explore further © 2018 Phys.org Nitrogen-15 isotope can trigger asymmetric autocatalytic reactions toward chiral organic compounds A trio of researchers at the University of Cambridge has come up with a new way to control adding chirality to nitrogen rings without first installing reactive groups on them. In their paper published in the journal Science, Robert Phipps and grad students Rupert Proctor and Holly Davis, describe the new reaction process and possible uses for it.
Explore further More information: Gravitational lensing detection of an extremely dense environment around a galaxy cluster. Nature Astronomy (2018). doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0508-yAbstractGalaxy clusters form at the highest-density nodes of the cosmic web. The clustering of dark matter halos hosting these galaxy clusters is enhanced relative to the general mass distribution, with the matter density beyond the virial region being strongly correlated to the halo mass (halo bias). Halo properties other than mass can further enhance the halo clustering (secondary bias). Observational campaigns have ascertained the halo bias, but efforts to detect this secondary bias for massive halos have been inconclusive. Here, we report the analysis of the environment bias in a sample of massive clusters, selected through the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect by the Planck mission, focusing on the detection of the environment dark matter correlated to a single cluster, PSZ2 G099.86+58.45. The gravitational lensing signal of the outskirts is very large and can be traced up to 30 megaparsecs with a high signal-to-noise ratio (about 3.4), implying environment matter density in notable excess of the cosmological mean. Our finding reveals this system to be extremely rare in the current paradigm of structure formation and, implies that enhancing mechanisms around high-mass halos can be very effective. Future lensing surveys will probe the surroundings of single haloes, enabling the study of their formation and evolution of structure. Citation: Researchers study gravitational lensing around an extremely dense galaxy cluster (2018, July 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-gravitational-lensing-extremely-dense-galaxy.html Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo’s mass dominates the total mass. These halos cannot be observed directly, but astronomers infer their presence by the phenomenon of gravity lensing—the distortion of background objects by strong gravitational sources that act as lenses. Astronomers can even study distant galaxies magnified by the gravitational lensing of closer gravitational objects. Journal information: Nature Astronomy © 2018 Phys.org Mapping dark matter This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Visible light and total mass. Shown is the composite colour image of PSZ2 G099.86+58.45 exploiting CFHTLS g, r and i band images. The contours follow the mass distribution reconstructed from WL (white) and optical i light (red) of the galaxies with photometric redshift within ±0.06(1 + zcl) of the cluster redshift (zcl). The longer the dash, the higher the contour value. The map is centred on the BCG, and north is up. Scale bar, 1 Mpc h−1. Credit: (c) Nature Astronomy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0508-y Researchers have known for decades that the clustering of galaxies does not mirror the clustering of most of the matter in the universe. The concept that galaxy distribution correlates to matter density at a given site in the universe dates back to 1984. In a galaxy cluster, matter distribution is highly clustered, and halos form at the peak of this distribution. This is called the halo bias.Halo bias can also be framed as the relationship between the spatial distribution of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field. Clustering is enhanced relative to the general distribution of mass in the cluster. But there are other theorized properties besides mass that can affect clustering; physicists refer to these as secondary bias, but efforts at identifying them have been inconclusive.Recently, a group of Italian researchers published a report in Nature Astronomy on a study of PSZ2 GO99.86+58.45, an extremely dense galaxy cluster with a very large gravitational lensing signal. They report that the system is extremely rare within the framework of galactic structure formation, and its characteristics strongly imply the effectiveness of enhancing mechanisms other than mass on dark matter halos.The researchers analyzed data from two publicly available shear catalogs—the CFHTLenS and RCSLens. They found that the outskirts of the cluster have a very large gravitational lensing signal traceable up to 30 megaparsecs. Its high signal-to-noise ratio implies environment matter density that far exceeds the cosmological mean density. They report that the extreme density of this cluster cannot be attributed solely to mass.Additionally, the researchers report that their findings agree well with the Lambda cold dark matter model (ΛCDM), which holds that the universe contains a cosmological constant denoted Λ associated with dark energy and cold dark matter. Cold dark matter is a hypothetical form of dark matter in which dark matter particles move slower than light. The ΛCDM model proposes that structure in the universe forms hierarchically from the bottom up, as smaller structures collapse under the influence of their own gravity, and continually merge into larger structures. It is currently the favored model for structure formation in the universe.The researchers conclude by noting the utility of lensing analysis in the study of galaxy clusters. They write, “Next-generation galaxy surveys will routinely perform the lensing analysis of single halos out to very large radii, as we have presented here.”
Kolkata: The denial of basic healthcare to transgenders has been brought to light through a documentary “Beyond Blue and Pink” that seeks to promote dialogue and discussion towardsA creating a trans-friendly way of accessing West Bengal’s healthcare system. The members of a city-based NGO, Civilian Welfare Foundation, Indrani Kar and Shuvojit Moulik, had undertaken a study titled “Basic Medical Facility for transgenders-a crucial step towards improving public health” in 2014. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights They came across the plight of many members of the community, and thereafter filmed the documentary to reach out and sensitize a larger audience. One of the directors of the documentary, Debgopal Mondal, who himself is a part of the LGBT community, mentioned that there was a lot of talk on Article 377, rights of the community and choice of partners, but while making the film he realised that the real issues of the transgenders were not being highlighted. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed For instance, there is lack of trans-friendly public urinals. “The whole system is running on a binary mindset, anything different or outside the box is challenged and resisted,” said Abhirupa Kar of Civilian Welfare Foundation. Transgenders are subject to ‘trans-phobia’, discrimination, harassment and mockery even during getting basic treatment in West Bengal and other parts of India. “I have witnessed doctors being intolerant, insensitive and callous due to which the people like us (transgender) are becoming scared to visit the doctors. As we face constant discrimination, we are not at at mental ease and as we are deprived of basic physical treatment, the ailments are aggravating,” said Anurag Maitrayee, a city-based gender activist. “In our society, we are taught to hold guns but not hands. The documentary made me feel that the things shared are about me and I could relate to it,” Maitrayee added after watching the film on Friday. According to psychiatrist Madhurima Ghosh, the constant denial of even the basic rights results in anxiety, depression and other mental disorders. “Sensitisation of parents is important; it can only be done once a psychologist is able to able build rapport with them. We cannot directly do it as the stigma is deep-rooted,” said Ghosh, who is attached to AIIMS, Delhi. She said the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) will conduct inclusive workshops to sensitise the medical practitioners, psychologists and common people. People need to stop terming the third genders as being ill. Even parents are misled by the healthcare system. “My parents took a lot of trouble to cure me at first, showed me to various doctors, took me to Vellore as well,” says Sourabh Das, a transgender at Amitie Trust. “Even doctors in Vellore did not know about transgenders and I was given electric shocks and even put in an asylum to be cured. Now my mother understands that this is not abnormal or a disease and she participates in workshops to understand it more,” added Das.
Kolkata: The Primarc Group has claimed in a written statement that they are not part of any wrongdoing in their business, in response to the story published in Millennium Post on July 4. Siddharth Pansari, director, Primarc Group, claimed that they have been operating their bookstore business in their Elgin Road property for the last 15 years and they own no residential flat in the building.”So, the question of leasing and renting it to politicians does not arrive,” stated Pansari. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedHe also claimed that like any other corporate group including the Birlas and Tatas, they have multiple companies running different business operations through different SPVs. All the shares of the same are held by bonafide shareholders and these companies have followed all statutory norms. Hence, there is no scope of the companies being Shell/benami as published. Regarding their real estate business, Pansari claimed that they have multiple companies holding and developing lands, only after obtaining all clearances and sanctions by statutory authorities.
Concerns about perfectionism may lead to stress, burnout and potential health problems, says a study.“Perfectionistic concerns capture fears and doubts about personal performance, which creates stress that can lead to burnout when people become cynical and stop caring,” said lead researcher Andrew Hill, associate professor of sport psychology at York St. John University in England.“It can also interfere with relationships and make it difficult to cope with setbacks because every mistake is viewed as a disaster,” Hill said. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In this study of the relationship between perfectionism and burnout, the researchers analysed the results from 43 previous studies conducted over the past 20 years.Concerns about perfectionism can sabotage success at work, school or on the playing field, the results said.The study found that “perfectionistic concerns” had the strongest negative effects in contributing to burnout in the workplace, possibly because people have more social support and clearly defined objectives in education and sports. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixA student can be rewarded for hard work with a high grade, or a tennis player can win the big match, but a stellar performance in the workplace may not be recognised or rewarded, which may contribute to cynicism and burnout.“People need to learn to challenge the irrational beliefs that underlie perfectionistic concerns by setting realistic goals, accepting failure as a learning opportunity, and forgiving themselves when they fail,” Hill said.“Creating environments where creativity, effort and perseverance are valued also would help,” Hill said.The study was published online in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Review.